Contexte

Le partenaire d'Interpeace au Kenya, la Commission nationale de cohésion et d'intégration (National Cohesion and Integration Commission (NCIC)), a été créé pour aider à construire une paix durable au Kenya après la crise post-électorale de 2008. Celle-ci est apparue à la suite de l’élection présidentielle contestée en décembre 2007, qui a provoqué des violences meurtrières, perpétrées principalement selon des critères ethniques. La NCIC est une agence gouvernementale chargée de promouvoir une paix et une cohésion durables entre les différentes communautés ethniques du Kenya. Interpeace et elle ont signé un protocole d'accord en novembre 2014, officialisant un partenariat pour collaborer sur le programme pilote de Mandera. Celui-ci a permis à Interpeace de partager plus de deux décennies d'expérience de consolidation de la paix avec la NCIC. La situation en matière de sécurité dans le comté de Mandera, où Interpeace a mis en œuvre une initiative de consolidation de la paix depuis 2016, s'est améliorée malgré des affrontements de clans intermittents et des attaques terroristes transfrontalières à petite échelle qui mettent de l'huile sur le feu dans un environnement déjà fragile. Les attaques terroristes sont pour la plupart perpétrées par le groupe militant somalien Al Shabaab, qui est opposé à l'implication militaire kényane en Somalie. En 2017, la NCIC et Interpeace ont publié un rapport axé sur les conclusions d'un processus de consultation visant à établir les défis de la paix dans le comté de Mandera, tels que perçus par les communautés locales du comté, intitulé : Challenges to Peace in Mandera County (Défis à la paix dans le comté de Mandera). Dans un rapport récent intitulé : « Empreintes de la paix : consolider la cohésion nationale dans un Kenya décentralisé 2014-2018 », la NCIC a recommandé l'adaptation de l'approche Action Recherche Participative et des leçons tirées du programme Mandera comme modèle d'architectures de consolidation de la paix détenues et conduites localement dans l'ensemble des 47 comtés du Kenya. En 2018, Interpeace et elle ont par conséquent mené une évaluation rapide de la fragilité et de la résilience dans les régions du Wajir et du Rift Nord du Kenya, étant donné que celles-ci sont confrontées à des défis importants en matière de paix et de sécurité. Cette situation a abouti à l'intensification de l'approche de consolidation de la paix en 2019, dans la vallée de Kerio à travers les frontières du comté de Turkana, West Pokot, Elgeyo Marakwet, Baringo et Samburu.


But

L'objectif du programme est de contribuer à faire progresser la paix, la sécurité et le développement dans les comtés fragiles du Kenya en transformant les communautés de base en agents de paix, capables de gérer leur conflit par des moyens non violents.

Strengthening cross-clan collaboration

In April 2018, the Mandera Peacebuilding Programme facilitated the safe return of 19,000 people displaced in an upsurge of fighting and killings between the Degodia and Garre clans in Banisa Sub-County. Following the displacement of 32,000 people in the conflict, the peacebuilding team mobilized an all-inclusive, cross-clan peace process that brought together 252 stakeholders with the objective of brokering a swift ceasefire. This resulted in an agreement on the immediate cessation of hostilities, the hand-over of murder suspects to the authorities, and the safe return of IDPs. Following the cessation of hostilities, the team immediately launched an awareness campaign across Banisa Sub-County, carrying out peace rallies in 12 locations to spread information on the agreement. A total of 5,350 people was reached and there were no retaliatory attacks thanks to swift engagement with the local community. ...

Promoting co-existence through film

The programme has used Audio-visual documentary film as a critical tool for the documentation and dissemination of its peacebuilding efforts – film has been used as a conflict early warning and prevention tool. Through film screenings, out-of-reach rural communities have been informed of cross-clan agreements and the research findings on the challenges and solutions to peace in Mandera. The films also amplify people’s voices to leaderships at the capitals. In the case of the Banisa intervention, a film about the peace process and the community declaration was produced. Three months after the intervention, the peacebuilding team returned to Banisa and the neighbouring Sub-Counties of Mandera North and Mandera West to screen the film on the Banisa intervention. This has contributed towards the attainment of a sustainable social reconciliation process and has simultaneously bridged the information...

Fostering the role of women in peacebuilding processes

To promote the positive role women can have in building peace, the peacebuilding team mobilized 25 women who are opinion leaders to participate in the Banisa intervention. These women were able to share their opinions and concerns around sexual harassment and assault with security officials, leading to a recognition on the part of leaders that the participation and engagement of women in peacebuilding should be further encouraged. Furthermore, in May 2018, the adjacent County of Wajir experienced recurrent clan conflict between the Degodia and the Ajuran over land and resources. As a result, our partners the NCIC supported women-led local organizations in their quest to advocate for peace and carry out peace meetings and rallies to foster dialogue and cohesion. The intervention, led by the Sisters Rise Together Foundation, targeted clans and sub-clans engaged in conflicts in Buna, Eldas, and Bojiga...

Supporting youth platforms for leadership in peace, reconciliation and governance

As part of our objective to support cross-clan initiatives to prevent radicalization, promote conflict management and address community security concerns, the programme works with a select group of youth leaders to reinvigorate a youth platform named the Mandera County Vital Voices Network (MCVVN) for leadership in peace and reconciliation. In 2018, the youth platform organized 72 youth-led dialogue groups, that were trained on issues of peace and reconciliation. Furthermore, a joint prioritization of the issues affecting youth was developed. The issues identified were corruption, unemployment and radicalization. The Mandera Vital Voices is now viewed as a valuable platform for peace and is positioned to lead participation on key questions such as the radicalization of vulnerable youth.

Addressing violent extremism

The Mandera programme has been the lead agency steering discussions around the development of the Mandera County Action Plan on Countering Violent Extremism (CVE). This was attributed to its known expertise in Participatory Action Research (PAR). Furthermore, the Mandera programme has led an effort to improve relations and trust between security agencies and the local communities, particularly young people, who have often been indiscriminately on the receiving end of security operations. Beginning with joint sporting activities and later consultative meetings, the programmme has made progress in forging understanding between the security agencies and the local communities. Many youths now openly discuss security matters and the threats of radicalization with local leaders, imams and security heads. Moreover, the Mandera Officer Commanding Police Station (OCS) has opened a social media account to en...

Ressources