Contexte

Début 2012, le Mali a connu une crise politique et sécuritaire sans précédent. Depuis, certaines mesures ont été prises pour stabiliser la situation et rétablir la paix, notamment par le biais de la signature de l'Accord de paix d'Alger de 2015. Cependant, la sécurité et la stabilité du Mali restent préoccupantes et la violence s'est depuis propagée à d'autres régions du pays. Une pléthore d'acteurs internes et externes influencent la dynamique des conflits dans le pays aujourd'hui et la présence de différents groupes armés continue d'être un facteur de déstabilisation majeur. Les forces armées nationales et internationales, y compris une importante mission de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies, luttent toujours pour protéger les civils ; les dispositifs nationaux et internationaux et internationaux ne semblent pas suffisants pour rétablir la paix, car les conflits, la méfiance et la violence continuent d'augmenter. Il est largement admis que des efforts importants sont encore nécessaires pour résoudre les problèmes structurels qui ont déclenché la crise de 2012, ainsi que le conflit et la violence multidimensionnelle qui en résultent au Mali aujourd'hui. En 2013, Interpeace et son partenaire, l'Institut Malien de Recherche Action pour la Paix (IMRAP), ont mené un dialogue au niveau national et un processus de recherche afin d'identifier les obstacles et les priorités pour la consolidation de la paix. Plus de 5 000 Maliens ont été consultés dans les huit régions du pays et les camps de réfugiés en Mauritanie, au Burkina Faso et au Niger. Ces témoignages ont été utiles pour élaborer le rapport « Autoportrait du Mali ». Quatre obstacles et priorités majeurs pour la paix ont été identifiés : l'érosion des valeurs sociétales, le faible accès à l'emploi des jeunes, l'échec de la gouvernance et l'insécurité chronique. Si les résultats sont essentiels au travail d'Interpeace dans le pays, le processus de dialogue à l'échelle nationale qui a débuté en 2013 a défini la voie à suivre pour notre travail au Mali.


But

Nous cherchons à promouvoir et à établir un dialogue participatif et inclusif, visant en particulier à définir des actions menées par les communautés afin de restaurer la confiance et la collaboration entre elles, les autorités ainsi que les acteurs de la sécurité et de la défense. Nous souhaitons également soutenir et informer la communauté internationale sur la dynamique des conflits communautaires, conduisant à des programmes et des approches qui prennent davantage en considération la paix.

Supporting trust-building between communities and security and defence forces through women’s participation

Malians consulted by Interpeace and IMRAP agreed by consensus that the immediate priority should be to put an end to chronic insecurity by restoring trust between communities and the secuirty and defence forces (SDF) responsible for their protection. Indeed, in the eyes of both SDF and civilians, their mutual mistrust and the resulting lack of collaboration largely explain the current inability of the SDF to carry out their functions: Interpeace and IMRAP supported the Ministry of Security and Civil Protection in drafting their national policy on trust-building between security forces and communities. Malians also identified the active participation of women as a central element of trust-building. IMRAP and Interpeace led a participatory-action process to understand perspectives on role of women in security sector reform, and in the SDF.  The PAR process led to the production and dissemination of the...

Supporting the inclusive and participatory implementation of the Peace Agreement

The Mixed Patrols, better known as the Mécanisme Opérationnel de Coordination (MOC) are an armed body formed by former combatants from the three signatories of the peace agreement: the CMA, Plateforme and the Malian state/army. Their primary mandate is to protect Disarmament, Demobilization and Re-integration (DDR) sites, as part of the implementation of the 2015 Peace Agreement. The MOC are often perceived by the community as the main driver of insecurity and tensions in Gao. Its tense relations with local populations have aggravated the conflict. As a way to counter this reality, IMRAP has launched a trust-building process between the MOC and populations in this extremely tense environment, currently leading to the realization of joint community-led and owned actions. Interpeace and IMRAP have also supported the production of explanatory video-clips about the mission and mandate of the MOC, which ...

Promoting conflict sensitive programming

Interpeace has become the main point of reference in Mali regarding conflict sensitive programming. Interpeace’s Advisory Team (IPAT) with Canada, through the Peace and Stabilization Operations Program, trained MINUSMA staff in a context of a growing pressure on international actors in Mali to adapt its programming to be more conflict sensitive. The training on conflict sensitivity is also done to local actors in order to create a pool of experts that can effectively train others. Moreover, local analysis of conflict and resilience dynamics in Mopti and Gao, which were developed by Interpeace and IMRAP have set a standard about how to analyze local contexts, to inform and adapt programming. A comparative analysis of local conflict and resilience dynamics in the Ansongo, Bourem and Gao regions have been published. Interpeace is extending this work to humanitarian and development organisations, whil...

Transforming peacebuilding in Mali through innovative partnership models and methodologies

Since the publication of the “Auto-portrait of Mali”, Interpeace and IMRAP have been leading processes as a means of enhancing and strengthening dialogue, reconciliation and social cohesion within communities, based on priorities set by Malians themselves. Conscious of the limitations of the present system of peacebuilding in the country, Interpeace and IMRAP joined the Institute of Development Studies and Humanity United to develop a sustainable, long-term, multi-actor approach to peacebuilding owned by Malian communities from bottom to top. The process aims to promote and reinforce communities’ accountability and engagement to facilitate conflict prevention, management and resolution that are built upon local dynamics of resilience and locally-led and owned analyses. Communities will identify solutions – based on their resilience capacity – to the conflict and develop and implement appr...

Analyzing the root causes of youth-led violence in West Africa and the Sahel Region

Generally analyzed through the lenses of “radicalization” or “violent extremism”, dynamics of young people engaged in new forms of violence is the focus of growing international scrutiny, especially in West Africa. However, as this interest grows, we realize that our current understanding does not allow us to fully grasp the phenomenon’s complexity. Furthermore, young people are rarely associated to this analysis and even less so to the solutions developed. Therefore, the solutions proposed can only be partial or ineffective. A Participatory Research led by Interpeace, together with its partners IMRAP and Indigo Côte d’Ivoire, supported by UNICEF, describes how societies and dynamics surrounding young people in Mali and Côte d’Ivoire structure the trajectories of some of the latter towards violence. Ideology (namely religious) appears less like a decisive motivation, but rather as l...

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