Livre blanc sur l’application programmatique de l’agenda Jeunes, paix et sécurité

Putting the Youth, Peace and Security Agenda into practice

Investir dans la paix et la prévention face à l'extrémisme violent

How do social gender dynamics influence trajectories of young people towards new forms of violence? - A study conducted in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali

Trajectories of young people towards violence are generally not a result of indoctrination or the expression of youth frustration, but rather a result of the social dynamics and pressures exerted on them since childhood. Even though these pressures on boys and girls are of the same nature, young people’s responses to them are strongly structured by gender roles and norms.

In 2016, Interpeace and its partners Indigo Côte d’Ivoire and the Malian Institute of Action Research for Peace (IMRAP) conducted a participatory research entitled “Beyond Ideology and Greed: Trajectories of young people towards new forms of violence in Mali and Côte d’Ivoire”. This report highlighted how the educational crisis and the quest for meaning and social success have influenced vulnerable youth into joining socially-alternative groups – some of which are prone to violent acts. During the discussions and debates that followed its dissemination, several questions focused on how gender is also a key factor in determining young people’s trajectories towards new forms of violence. In this context, a complementary research process was conducted to deepen the understanding developed in the previous research on the impact of gender roles and social pressure.

The report is entitled “I walk with the boys”- Trajectories of young people towards violence: mirror of the gender dynamics of their society? A local analysis of gender roles and social pressures in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali.

Among the most important research findings, we found that: A). Society’s expectations of young people, whatever their gender, is focusing more and more on their economic contribution. In addition to that, the less privileged they are, the more pressure they are under to contribute. B). Though women take on a more important economic role, this does not ensure their “emancipation”. However, it does simultaneously bring on a crisis of masculinity, which nowadays creates a need for men to redefine themselves. C). Overly strict forms of authority and social control can push certain young people, both boys and girls, towards marginalization, and therefore lead some to carry out violent acts. And D). It is necessary to develop new success models for young boys and girls who have trouble identifying with social models set by traditional and community spheres, by their elders or by school.

Over a period of three months, from July to September 2017, the teams of researchers and facilitators from Indigo and IMRAP led consultations in Abobo and Bouaké in Côte d’Ivoire, and in Sikasso, Gao and Bamako in Mali. Through focus groups and individual interviews, the team of researchers engaged 203 young people. With the financial support of UNICEF, the research, published on November 2017, highlights how the gender dimension is crucial in understanding the social dynamics of young people’s participation in new forms of violence.

Find the detailed findings from this research process in French ici, an illustrated summary in English iciet short video clips about the life trajectories of some Ivorian and Malian women and how they relate to violence and social pressure.

The realities illustrated in this document reveal complexities that a three-month research project cannot completely solve. More studies, of longer duration, will undoubtedly be necessary. But we must not stop there: the reflections drawn from this study should inspire concrete changes in the way of approaching this issue, because simple solutions do not exist.

These conclusions constitute the launching pad for a necessary collective action around the central question of success models set out for young people in the region.

"I walk with the boys" Trajectories of young people towards violence: mirror of the gender dynamics of their society? A local analysis of gender roles and social pressures in Cote d’Ivoire and Mali

Resulting from a participatory research conducted by Interpeace and its partners Indigo Côte d'Ivoire and the  Institut Malien de Recherche Action pour la Paix (IMRAP), the report entitled Beyond ideology and greed: trajectories of young people towards new forms of violence in Côte d'Ivoire and Mali published in 2016, highlighted how the educational crisis on the one hand, and the search for social recognition and new success models on the other, explain the trajectories of young people towards alternative spaces of socialization, which can lead to (the use of) violence. During the discussions and debates following its dissemination, several questions pointed to the issues of gender. While girls are generally not among the active providers of violence, it is important to highlight their experiences in the path to violence in order to understand their level of involvement and participation. It is also important to understand how these dynamics influence the trajectories of girls, and how education influences them.

On this basis, a complementary research process was conducted jointly in Côte d'Ivoire and Mali to deepen the understanding of the gendered dynamics based on the findings of the previous research.

Among the most important research findings, we found that: A). Society’s expectations of young people, whatever their gender, is focusing more and more on their economic contribution. In fact, the less privileged they are, the more pressure they are under to contribute. B). Though women are beginning to take on a more important economic role, this does not ensure their “emancipation”. However, it brings on a crisis of masculinity for men, who must now redefine and assert themselves in some way. C). Overly strict forms of authority and social control can push certain young people, both boys and girls, towards marginalization, and therefore lead some to carry out violent acts. And D). It is necessary to develop new success models for young boys and girls who have trouble identifying with social models set by traditional and community spheres, by their elders or by school.

These conclusions constitute the launching pad for collective action around the central question of success models set out for young people, both boys and girls, in the region.

« Je marche avec les garçons » Trajectoires des jeunes vers la violence, miroir des dynamiques de genre à l’échelle de leur société ? Une analyse locale des rôles de genre et des pressions sociales en Côte d’Ivoire et au Mali

Le rapport issu de la recherche participative conduite par Interpeace et ses partenaires Indigo Côte d’Ivoire et l’Institut Malien de Recherche Action pour la Paix (IMRAP) intitulé « Au-delà de l’idéologie et de l’appât du gain : trajectoires des jeunes vers les nouvelles formes de violence en Côte d’Ivoire et au Mali» publié en 2016, a mis en lumière la manière dont la crise éducative d’une part, et la recherche de reconnaissance sociale et de nouveaux modèles de réussite, d’autre part, expliquent les trajectoires des jeunes vers des espaces alternatifs de socialisation pouvant les mener à l’utilisation de la violence.

Au cours des discussions et des débats qui ont suivi sa dissémination, plusieurs questions ont souligné les aspects liés au genre. Si les jeunes filles ne sont généralement pas considérées comme étant parmi les pourvoyeurs actifs de violence, il est important de mettre en relief leurs expériences dans ces trajectoires menant à la violence, en vue de comprendre leur niveau d’engagement et de participation. Il est aussi important de comprendre comment ces dynamiques influencent les trajectoires des jeunes filles, ainsi que le rôle joué par l’éducation dans la construction de ces trajectoires et de leurs déterminants.

Sur cette base, un processus de recherche complémentaire a été mené conjointement en Côte d’Ivoire et au Mali afin d’approfondir la compréhension des dynamiques développées dans le cadre de la recherche précédente autour de la question du genre.

Parmi les résultats clés de cette recherche, nous avons trouvé que : A). Les attentes sociales envers les jeunes, indifféremment du genre, se transforment aujourd’hui pour se centraliser de plus en plus sur leur contribution économique. En outre, plus le milieu est précaire, et plus la pression économique est précoce. B). Bien que les femmes commencent à assumer un rôle économique important, cela n’assure pas leur « émancipation. ». Toutefois, cela entraine une crise de la masculinité chez les hommes qui doivent maintenant se redéfinir et s’affirmer d’une certaine manière. C). Une autorité et un contrôle social trop stricts peuvent pousser certains jeunes, garçons comme filles, vers la marginalisation et mener certains d’entre eux à commettre ou à porter des actes de violence. Et D). Il est nécessaire de développer de nouveaux modèles de réussite pour les jeunes filles et les jeunes garçons qui ont du mal à s’identifier aux modèles mis en place par les sphères traditionnelles et communautaires, par leurs ainés ou par l’école.

Ces conclusions constituent l’amorce d’une action collective autour de la question centrale des modèles de réussite définis pour les jeunes, filles comme garçons, dans la région.

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Resulting from a participatory research conducted by Interpeace and its partners Indigo Côte d'Ivoire and the  Institut Malien de Recherche Action pour la Paix (IMRAP), the report entitled Beyond ideology and greed: trajectories of young people towards new forms of violence in Côte d'Ivoire and Mali published in 2016, highlighted how the educational crisis on the one hand, and the search for social recognition and new success models on the other, explain the trajectories of young people towards alternative spaces of socialization, which can lead to (the use of) violence. During the discussions and debates following its dissemination, several questions pointed to the issues of gender. While girls are generally not among the active providers of violence, it is important to highlight their experiences in the path to violence in order to understand their level of involvement and participation. It is also important to understand how these dynamics influence the trajectories of girls, and how education influences them.

On this basis, a complementary research process was conducted jointly in Côte d'Ivoire and Mali to deepen the understanding of the gendered dynamics based on the findings of the previous research.

Among the most important research findings, we found that: A). Society’s expectations of young people, whatever their gender, is focusing more and more on their economic contribution. In fact, the less privileged they are, the more pressure they are under to contribute. B). Though women are beginning to take on a more important economic role, this does not ensure their “emancipation”. However, it brings on a crisis of masculinity for men, who must now redefine and assert themselves in some way. C). Overly strict forms of authority and social control can push certain young people, both boys and girls, towards marginalization, and therefore lead some to carry out violent acts. And D). It is necessary to develop new success models for young boys and girls who have trouble identifying with social models set by traditional and community spheres, by their elders or by school.

These conclusions constitute the launching pad for collective action around the central question of success models set out for young people, both boys and girls, in the region.